The Post War Years: 1946-1970

The discovery of oil in Alberta changed Edmonton forever. Rapid growth, new technologies and changing lifestyles and world views dramatically altered Edmonton’s built landscape.


As Edmonton’s population expanded in a relatively short period of time, the city needed many institutional structures to maintain civic services. New multi-storey buildings changed the face of downtown as many historic buildings were either replaced with larger, modern structures or renovated for new uses. There were multiple influences on styles as the city attempted to find its own architectural identity. Buildings would emphasize craftsmanship and simplicity of line, but were often misunderstood as boring or ugly. They are representative of a significant era in Edmonton’s history, and one that greatly transformed the city.

Historical Context

Returning veterans, unless First Nations or Metis, had access to a wide variety of assistance, including education and housing programs. Edmonton's extraordinary growth was helped by a booming economy due to the discovery of oil, including on First Nations reserves to the South. During this period there was a healthy state of agriculture and the University of Alberta continued to expand. The City hired its first professional planner in 1949 to help manage Edmonton's phenomenal growth.

During the 1950s, the city increased in population from 149,000 to 269,000 people. In 1955, Edmonton was home to one of the first shopping centers in Canada when Westmount Mall opened its doors. The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology opened in 1960 to meet the growing need for skilled technical workers. In 1960, the $25 million Edmonton International Airport, located in downtown Edmonton, opened for commercial flights. Arts organizations, such as the Edmonton Civic Opera and the Edmonton Symphony, found new homes in the Jubilee Auditorium (1957) and the Citadel Theatre (1964).

The first skyscraper in Edmonton, the 27-storey CN tower, was built in 1966. This building would become a staple for Indigenous people arriving in Edmonton by train, to which stories abound. One year later another world class attraction, the Provincial Museum of Alberta, opened during the celebration of Canada’s centennial. Edmonton prospered throughout the 1960s and 1970s as the northern oil boom brought thousands of jobs and newcomers.

Effects of War

Houses were being built at a rate not seen since 1929, but supply was unable to keep up with demand. The first federal housing crown corporation, Wartime Housing Limited (WHL), built and managed rental units for war workers and veterans. In 1946, the federal government initiated a post-war program promoting home ownership, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), which offered easy, low cost mortgages. These low-cost mortgages would create the foundation of future economic prosperity for owners when land values would skyrocket.

The city spread into the suburbs as veterans started families in affordable, suburban houses. Downtown became less of a focal point as services decentralized and distances between services decreased due to the increased use of cars for travel. Auto-culture also led to houses being built with attached garages, a common sight in post-war subdivisions, though less typical in Edmonton’s older neighborhoods.



1946 to 1970